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幕墙的优点

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幕墙的优点

发布日期:2018-11-09 作者: 点击:

   MUQIANGDESANDAYOUDIANMEIGUAN、JIENENG、YIWEIHUXINGYEDONGTAI:JIANZHUMUQIANGZAIZHONGGUOXUNSUFAZHANYIYOU20NIAN,XIANZAIZHONGGUOYIJINGCHENGWEISHIJIESHANGJIANZAOMUQIANGZUIDUODEGUOJIA,CHENGWEISHIJIESHANGZUIDADEMUQIANGSHICHANG。SANQIANDUOJIAMUQIANGZHUANYEGONGSI,MEINIANSHIGONGYUEYIQIANWANPINGFANGMIDEMUQIANGDENGDENG。FAZHANTANWEIGUANZHI,XINGSHIYUWEIZHUANGGUAN。MUQIANGZAIJIANZHULINGYULIZHENSHIFENGJUANYUNYONG、XIJUANZHONGGUO,BAOJUYUNEI,NANGKUOJIANZHUZHISHI。JIANZHUMUQIANGZAIZHONGGUOJIANSHEZHONGDEDATINGJIN、DACHAOLIU,SHIGAIGEKAIFANGDEYIDACHENGGUO,SHIJIANZHUQIANGTIJISHUDEYIDAKUAYUE。NALIYOUJIANZHU,NALIJIUYOUMUQIANG,DIFANGBUFENNANBEIDONGXI、JIANZHUBUFENGAODIDAXIAO,FANSHIWAIWEIHUSHIZHIQIBASHIMUQIANG!

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  FAZHANZHONGDEMUQIANGYAOFOUDINGME?WOSHUOYAOFOUDING,YINWEIFAZHANJIUSHIFOUDINGBUZU,ER“KENDING-FOUDING-FOUDINGZHIFOUDING”GENGSHIFAZHANDELUOXUANSHISHANGSHENGYUNDONG。ZAIYIGEDAFAZHANDESHIJIANZHIHOU,YAOBUYAOLIXINGDEFENXISIKAOYICIYIJINGFASHENGLEDEYIQIE,SHENHUAYIXIARENSHI,GENGSHENKEDILIJIETA、GANJUETANI?JIANZHUMUQIANGDEXIANGQIANTUIYIHEXIANGQIANFAZHANYOUYIGENEIBUDEMAODUNHEDOUZHENG,WOMENDUIMUQIANGDERENSHIYUNDONGYEYINGSUIZHITUIYIHEFAZHAN。WOMENDUIJIANZHUMUQIANGDEFAZHANGUILVDONGLEME?NENGLIJIEQINGCHUME?NENGZHANGWOZHEIGEFAZHANGUILV、ZHEIGENEIBUMAODUNZAINENGDONGDITUIDONGMUQIANGDEFAZHANME?ZAIJIANZHUMUQIANGERSHINIANDAFAZHANZHIHOU,WOMENJILEILEDUOSHAOLILUNDERENSHINI?WOJUEDEWOMENDERENSHIHAILUOHOUYUMUQIANGSHIJIANHENDUO。

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  幕墙发展了二十年,什么是幕墙?玻璃幕墙博牛彩票APP下载和窗有什么不同?为什么要做幕墙而不做窗?幕墙比窗好在哪里?这些问题看来幼稚,但这是最初始的问题,我们又回归到了事情的出发点。建筑师如何想这些问题我不清楚,有以下几个主要的理由:首先是建筑立面外观的要求,要与传统的窗的立面有所不同,而要求大面积的整体的外围护平面或者曲面;其次是建筑采光的要求,要求有更大的窗墙比和通透性;第三则是高层、超高层建筑或者体量大的建筑在建筑安装施工的简约化和工业化,进一步改进和提高施工效率和速度等等。由于这样的原因,带来了窗到幕墙的转化,因此而导出幕墙的一系列的结构、构造、工艺、性能上的新的系统的建立。由此而应讨论的便是窗和幕墙的根本的、本质的区别是什么?从结构上讲,幕墙是悬挂在主体结构之外的连续的外围护系统,而窗则是支座在主体结构之内的间断的外围护系统;从悬挂与支座、主体结构之外和之内、连续和间断这三对矛盾上分析,窗和幕墙的区别是明显的、易区分的。当一项建筑的立面并不要求、也不适合设计成连续的、大片的、大通透的情况时,搞玻璃幕墙也就不是必要的了。所以建筑幕墙的第一项自我反省,那就是将窗作为对手,作为对比,也是必要的、必须的。很可能建筑外围护也会形成一种“窗一幕墙一窗”或者“幕墙一窗一幕墙”的发展过程,两者互相矛盾、互相推动、互相促进。我并不赞成不分建筑具体特征都是一片幕墙。还是应该选择适合的、值得的,才是合理的。多样化才是世界的本性存在。

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  带窗的建筑外围护系统,其实是一种复合结构、组合的构造形式。在非采光部分,如竖向的窗间墙、横向的窗台等部分,以及窗框、窗扇的金属材料;采光部分则为玻璃。在非采光部分的结构受力、隔热、保温、防水、隔声、防火、节能等等方面,一般都比玻璃幕墙要好且造价低廉。由于扩大了窗墙比,提高了采光与非采光面积比,由窗进而大面积窗再到幕墙,则增加了采光部分和弱化了的非采光部分,必须采取配套的技术措施投入,才能改善功能。例如窗间墙、窗台用加气混凝土砌块或条板,其热传导系数仅为0.2,而单片镀膜玻璃K值仅有5.9W/㎡K,中空玻璃为2.5、低辐射(LOW-E)中空玻璃也只达2.0.而非采光铝板保温棉K值可降低但造价增加很多。由此观之,整体的外窗系统的性能价格比(投入产出比)应较幕墙合理。并非所有的建筑外围护系统采用幕墙系统博牛彩票APP下载就是先进的、合理的。这仅是建筑幕墙第二个要自我否定的题目。将性价比作为评估参数、使用功能设计规定要求达到同一水准,幕墙与窗同时放在建筑外围护系统的同一比较线上,进行两者比较和选择才是合理的。除非在建筑立面外观上有完全不同的风格要求,则是另外的话题。

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